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l-text">Last updated: 22 Feb, 2017  
SME Glossary
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Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with - R
Words   Description
R-Square (the Coefficient of Determination) The percent of the variation in a dependent variable (a y-variable) that is explained by variation in an independent variable (an x-variable).
Random Walk A process in which instantaneous changes in exchange rates are normally distributed with a zero mean and constant variance.
Re-Invoicing Centers An offshore financial affiliate that is used to channel funds to and from the multinational’s foreign operations.
Reactivation A resumption of the activated status of an entire area that was previously deactivated without any change in the operator or the area boundaries.
Real Appreciation/Depreciation A change in the purchasing power of a currency.
Real Cash Flow(RCF) A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash flow is given.
Real Exchange Rate (RER) A measure of the nominal exchange rate that has been adjusted for inflation differentials since an arbitrarily defined base period.
Real Interest Rate (RIR) Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods; that is, the nominal interest rate minus the expected inflation rate.
Real Options (RO) An option or option-like feature embedded in a real investment opportunity.
Reciprocal Marketing Agreement A strategic alliance in which two companies agree to co market each other’s products in their home market. Production rights may or may not be transferred.
Recourse The right to demand return of money paid. In negotiation of a letter of credit, payment by the negotiating bank will normally be with recourse.
Regional Commissioner The Regional Commissioner of Customs for the Customs Region in which the zone is located.
Regional Development Banks Banks that are owned and operated by member nations; they are designed to extend development loans and provide other assistance to member nations. The world's four regional development banks are the African Development Bank Group.
Registered Bonds (RB) Bonds for which each issuer maintains a record of the owners of its bonds. Countries requiring that bonds be issued in registered form include the United States and Japan. (Contrast with bearer bonds.)
Registration Statement (RS) In the United States, a statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on securities issues that discloses relevant information to the public.
Remitting Bank Bank that sends the draft to overseas bank for collection.
Repatriation The act of remitting cash flows from a foreign affiliate to the parent firm.
Reservation Price The price below (above) which a seller (purchaser) is unwilling to go.
Residual Value The value of an asset at the conclusion of a lease.
Restrictive Endorsement Endorsement transferring title or right to a named party.
Retail Trade Generally, sales or offers to sell goods or services to individuals for personal use.
Retention Ratio Retained earnings divided by net income.
Return on Equity (ROE) Net income after interest and taxes divided by average common stockholder's equity.
Revaluation An increase in a currency value relative to other currencies in a fixed exchange rate system.
Revocable Letter of Credit A letter of credit that can be canceled or altered by the drawee (buyer) after it has been issued by the drawee's bank.
Right of Priority (ROP) "The right of a patent holder of a patent issued in one country to intellectual property rights in a foreign market for one year, without filing for a local patent, even if someone from the foreign market files a local patent for the same process.
Rights of Set-Off An agreement defining each party’s rights should one party default on its obligation. Rights of set-off were common in parallel loan arrangements.
Risk Averse Seeking stability rather than risk.
Risk Premium The excess return on the risky asset that is the difference between expected return on risky assets and the return of risk-free assets.
Risk Profile A graph with the value of an underlying asset on the x-axis and the value of a position exposed to risk in the underlying asset on the y-axis. Also used with changes in value. (Contrast with payoff profile.)
Roll’s Critique The CAPM holds by construction when performance is measured against a mean-variance efficient index. Otherwise, it holds not at all.
Royalty Payment made for the use of a person or business’s property based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use.
Rule #1 Always keep track of your currency units.
Rule #2 Always think of buying and selling the currency in the denominator of a foreign exchange quote.
Rules of Origin Rules used to determine in what country a good will be considered as actually made for tariff and other trade purposes.
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