|Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with - E
| Economic Freedom
Economic freedom occurs when individuals and businesses make most of the economic decisions in an economy.
|"EXW"- Ex Works
||Title and risk pass to buyer including payment of all transportation
and insurance cost from the seller's door. Used for any mode of
In EXW shipment terms the Seller (Exporter) provides the goods for
collection by the Buyer (Importer) on the seller or exporter's promise.
Responsibility for the seller is to put the goods, in a good package
which is adaptable and disposable by the transport.
The buyer or Importer arranges insurance for damage transit goods. The
Buyer or importer has to bear all costs and risks involved in shipment
(However, if the parties
wish the seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on
departure and to bear the risks and all the costs of such loading, this
should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the
contract of sale.)
||Refers to electronic commerce. In the context of Foreign Trade Policy,
e-commerce relates to electronic filing and processing of applications
||EPCG refers to the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme, which
gives the manufacturer facility for import of capital goods for export
production at concessional rate of duty (5 per cent) against certain
level of export.
||EPZs means Export Processing Zones which are special enclaves,
separated from the Domestic Tariff Area (DTA), to provide an
internationally competitive duty-free environment for export
production. EOU means Export Oriented Units.
|Earnings Response Coefficient
||The relation of stock returns to earnings surprises around the time of corporate earnings announcements.
|| A theory of the multinational firm that posits three types of advantage benefiting the multinational corporation: ownership-specific, location-specific, and market internalisation advantages.
Change in the value of a corporation's assets or liabilities as a result of changes in currency values.
||The integration of commercial and financial activities among countries through the abolishment of economic discrimination.
||A group that combines the economic characteristics of a common market
with some degree of harmonization of monetary and fiscal policies.
|Economic Value Added
A method of performance evaluation that adjusts accounting performance
with a charge reflecting investors' required return on investment.
|Economies of Scale
||Achieving lower average cost per unit through a larger scale of production.
|Economies of Vertical Integration
||Achieving lower operating costs by bringing the entire production chain
within the firm rather than contracting through the marketplace.
|Effective Annual Interest Rate
||the interest rate as if it were compounded once per time period rather than several times per period.
|Effective Annual Yield
||Calculated as (1+i/n)n, where i is the stated annual interest rate and
n is the number of compounding periods per year. (Contrast with bond
equivalent yield and money market yield.)
||The mean-variance efficient portion of the investment opportunity set.
||A market in which prices reflect all relevant information.
||A type of economic sanction that totally disallows the imports of a specific product or all products from a specific country.
||An emerging market has a very high growth rate, which yields enormous
market potential. It is distinguished by the recent progress it has
made in economic liberalization.
|Emerging Stock Markets
||The stock markets of emerging economies. These markets typically have
higher expected returns than established markets but also higher risk.
||The ratio, in percent, of the number of employed persons to total labor force.
||Price or input cost uncertainty that is within the control of the firm,
such as when the act of investing reveals information about price or
||The assumption of payment responsibility in respect of a letter of credit
||A Eurobond with a convertibility option or warrant attached. Eurobonds:
Fixed rate Eurocurrency deposits and loans and Eurocurrencies with
longer maturities than five years.
||Cash-flow amount transferred to a new project from customers and sales of other products of the firm.
||The single currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) introduced in January 1999. EMU members are Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.
||A bond that is denominated in a currency other than that of the country of issue.
||Deposits and loans denominated in one currency and traded in a market
outside the borders of the country issuing that currency (like :
||A money market for currencies held in the form of deposits in countries other than that where the currency is issued.
||Dollar-denominated deposits held in a country other than the United States.
|European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
||One of four major regional development banks currently operating in the global economy.
|European Currency Unit (ECU)
||A trade-weighted basket of currencies in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) of the European Union.
|European Exchange ate Mechanism (ERM)
||The exchange rate system used by countries in the European Union in
which exchange rates are pegged within bands around an ERM central
|European Monetary System (EMS)
||An exchange rate system based on cooperation between European Union central banks.
||An option that can be exercised only at expiration. (Contrast with American option.)
||A foreign exchange quotation that states the foreign currency price of one U.S. dollar. (Contrast with American terms.)
|European Union (EU)
||An intergovernmental organization which coordinates foreign, economic, and judicial policy among its 25 member nations.
||A government permit sometimes required by the importer's government to
enable the importer to convert his or her own country's currency into
foreign currency with which to pay a seller in another country.
||The price of one currency in terms of another, i.e., the number of
units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another
||The risk that losses may result from the changes in the relative values of different currencies.
||The price at which an option can be exercised (also called the striking price).
||The showing of merchandise within a zone, usually to prospective buyers.
||Export-Import Bank of the India. Provides guarantees of working capital
loans for Indian exporters, guarantees the repayment of loans or makes
loans to foreign purchasers of Indian goods and services.
||Refers to Export and Import (Exim) Policy. Exim Policy has got
incorporated into the comprehensive Foreign Trade Policy, which was
announced by the Commerce & Industry Minister on 31st August, 2004.
||Price or input cost uncertainty that is outside the control of the firm.
||The date when a letter of credit is no longer valid - i.e. the date beyond which it cannot be used.
||A tax that is explicitly collected by a government; includes income,
withholding, property, sales, and value-added taxes and tariffs.
||Any resource, intermediate good, or final good or service that producers in one country sell to buyers in another country.
||An individual or firm that helps to locate and introduce buyers and
seller in international business for a commission but does not take
part in actual sales transaction.
|Export Commission House
An organization which, for a commission, acts as a purchasing agent for a foreign buyer.
||A general export license covers the exportation of goods not restricted
under the terms of a validated export license. No formal application or
written authorization is needed to ship exports under a general export
|Export Management Company
||A private firm that transacts export business on behalf of its client companies in return for a commission, salary, or retainer.
||Quantitative restrictions imposed by exporting countries to limit
exports to specified foreign markets, usually as a follow-up to formal
or informal agreements reached with importing countries.
||Any form of government payment that helps an exporter or manufacturing concern to lower its export costs.
|Export Trading Company (ETC)
||A company that facilitates the export of goods and services. An ETC can
either act as the export department for producers or take title to the
product and export for its own account.
A specific type of political risk in which a government seizes foreign assets.
||A market for financial securities that are placed outside the borders of the country issuing that currency.
||A government practice which applies its laws outside its territorial boundaries.