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l-text">Last updated: 22 Feb, 2017  
SME Glossary
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Glossary of Export Import Trade Terms Starting with - N
Words   Description
NFE Refers to Net Foreign Exchange. Net Foreign Exchange earning is calculated as a percentage of exports (NFEP).
National Tax Policy The way in which a nation chooses to allocate the burdens of tax collections across its residents.
National Treatment A country accords no less favorable treatment to imported goods than it does to domestic goods.
Nationalization A process whereby privately owned companies are brought under state ownership and control. (Contrast with privatization.)
Negative-NPV Tie-in Project A negative (-) NPV infrastructure development project that a local government requires of a company pursuing a positive (+) NPV investment project elsewhere in the economy.
Net Asset Value The sum of the individual asset values in a closed-end mutual fund. Closed-end funds can sell at substantial premiums or discounts to their net asset values.
Net Currency Exposure Exposure to foreign exchange risk after netting all intracompany cash flows.
Net Exposed Assets Exposed assets less exposed liabilities. The term is used with market values or, in translation accounting, with book values.
Net Monetary Assets Monetary assets less monetary liabilities.
Net Position A currency position after aggregating and canceling all offsetting transactions in each currency, maturity, and security.
Net Present Value (NPV) The present value of future cash returns, discounted at the appropriate market interest rate, minus the present value of the cost of the investment.
Net Working Capital Current assets minus current liabilities.
New Protectionism Recent efforts to pressure national governments to exercise greater control over foreign trade and foreign direct investment.
Nominal Cash Flow A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received (or paid out) are given.
Nominal Interest Rate Interest rate unadjusted for inflation.
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Special interest groups that operate in the global community.
Non-Intermediated Debt Market A financial market in which borrowers (governments and large corporations) appeal directly to savers for debt capital through the securities markets without using a financial institution as intermediary.
Non-Monetary Assets and Liabilities Assets and Liabilities with non-contractual payoffs.
Non-Privileged Foreign (NPF) Foreign Merchandise or non-tax-paid domestic merchandise upon which the duty and applicable taxes will be determined at the time of entry from the zone for consumption.
Non-Tariff Barrier An indirect measure used to discriminate against foreign manufacturers, for example, extensive inspection procedures for foreign imports that create barriers to entering the market.
Noncash Item Expense against revenue that does not directly affect cash flow, such as depreciation and deferred taxes.
Normal Distribution Symmetric bell-shaped frequency distribution that can be defined by its mean and standard deviation.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) A regional trade pact among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
Notional Principal In a swap agreement, a principal amount that is only notional and is not exchanged.
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